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Carbon removal is the process by which humans actively and intentionally remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and store it in longer-lived reservoirs.

Lithium-ion Battery Technology

With the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) globally, energy storage systems such as batteries are essential for both hybrid EVs and plug-in hybrid EVs. Lithium-ion batteries are the most commonly used batteries in this technology and 

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Why do we need lithium-ion batteries? And how do they work?

Emissions across all types of transportation (only the use of the vehicles) accounted for 27% of emissions in the United States and 24% of worldwide emissions in 2020. The kind of energy required to power an electric vehicle to run for hundreds of miles and charge quickly and conveniently enough, requires hundreds of battery cells in one battery pack that goes into an EV. The beginning of these batteries lay in cobalt batteries like we use in a number of devices but they turned out to be too expensive and cobalt in limited supply. So the industry needed to solve for cheaper solutions, limited supply of raw materials and energy density for range of car operation. This gave rise to the modern battery packs and lithium-ion batteries as we understand them today.


What does a battery cell look like?


What are the major kinds of lithium-ion batteries used in EVs?

Most technologies today use lithium-ion chemistries. The most commonly used lithium-ion chemistries are NMC (lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide) and LFP (lithium iron phosphate). The decision of the material for the cathode is most important because it determines the energy density and is perhaps the most expensive component.


Watch to learn more about carbon removal, its implications as a climate change mitigation strategy, and the various carbon removal options, from WRI.

Here are some useful resources to learn more about carbon removal:

Learn about the research and initiatives occurring at Yale's Carbon Containment Lab:

Explore the Carbon Dioxide Removal Primer, written and curated by many of the academics and non-profits working most closely on carbon removal:

Read a comprehensive report on negative emissions technologies from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine:

Read The Economist's breakdown of carbon removal and what needs to be done:

Explore WRI's resources on carbon removal (and watch their video above!):

Read The Royal Society's report on processes and methods for carbon removal:


[1] National Academies of Science, 2019, Negative Emissions Technologies and Reliable Sequestration: A Research Agenda

[2] AVOID 2 model cited in OECD, 2018, Innovation for the Low Carbon Economy 

[3] National Academy of Sciences, 2019, Negative Emissions Technologies and Reliable Sequestration: A Research Agenda.

[a] Caldecott, B., Lomax, G., & Workman, M. (2015). Stranded carbon assets and negative emissions technologies.


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